Finland facts and figures


Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It finally won its complete independence in 1917. During World
War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and resist invasions by the Soviet Union – albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now on par with Western Europe. As a member of the European Union, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999.

Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of
Finland, between Sweden and Russia


total: 337,030 sq km
water: 31,560 sq km
land: 305,470 sq km

Land boundaries:

total: 2,628 km
border countries: Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km


cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of
moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more
than 60,000 lakes


mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills

Land use:

arable land: 6.98%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 93.01% (1998 est.)


5,190,785 (July 2003 est.)


noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish


Finnish 93.4% (official), Swedish 5.9% (official), small Sami- and Russian-speaking