Estonia facts and figures


After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940, it regained its freedom in 1991, with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe. Estonia received invitations to join NATO and the EU in 2002.


Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia


total: 45,226 sq km
note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
water: 2,015 sq km
land: 43,211 sq km

Land boundaries:

total: 633 km
border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km


maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers


marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south

Land use:

arable land: 26.5%
permanent crops: 0.35%
other: 73.15% (1998 est.)


1,408,556 (July 2003 est.)


noun: Estonian(s)
adjective: Estonian

Estonian (official), Russian, Ukrainian, Finnish, other